The Tarahumara of Chihuahua are famous and well-known to many Americans who have journeyed south of the border to visit these intriguing people. In , 75, persons spoke Tarahumara, representing 1. Although The Zoque are one of the few non-Maya groups living in Chiapas. In , speakers of the Zoque language numbered 54, in Mexico representing 0.
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Closely related to the Mixe of Oaxaca, the Zoques primarily inhabit Chiapas , where A significant number of Zoques also live in Oaxaca. The Amuzgos are another Otomanguean language group. In , 43, Mexicans spoke one of their three languages, representing 0. The lion's share of Amuzgos live in Guerrero In , 43, persons spoke the Tojolabal language, representing 0. This language is a Mayan language which its origins clearly tied to the State of Chiapas , where There are almost Mexican languages, and roughly 70 of them were tallied in the census and census count. Several more deserve honorable mention.
Huichol: In twenty-fourth place, the Huichol language survived and prospered even as most of its neighbors in Nayarit and Jalisco died out from the onslaught of war, disease, assimilation and mestizaje. In , 35, persons spoke the Huichol language in Mexico , representing 0. While their neighbors stayed and fought the Spaniards or settled down alongside them, the Huicholes treasured their isolation and maintained their ancient language, culture and religion.
In , In twenty-fifth place, the Mayo are one of three surviving Cahita languages. The Cahita people originally spoke 18 languages, but were largely decimated during the s and s. The Mayos, and their Yaqui cousins, continued to endure and, at time resist, against both the Spanish Government and, later, the Mexican Government. In , 32, Mexicans spoke the Mayo language, representing 0. They were primarily distributed across their two homeland states: Sonora In twenty-eighth place, the Cora language was spoken by 17, persons in , representing 0.
The Coras primary homeland has always been Nayarit, where In thirty-first place, the famous Yaqui Indians of Sonora are famous for their resistance against the Mexican Government. During the early s, many Yaquis had to flee to Arizona or were exiled to faraway places such as the Yucatan peninsula. In , 14, persons spoke Yaqui, representing 0. At that time The Census. The results of the Mexican Census have been published and a comparison with the Censo and Conteo Count reveals a significant increase in the number of Mexicans 5 years of age and older who speak indigenous languages.
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But while the overall numbers rose in many states, the percentage of indigenous speakers in individual states actually dropped in many parts of Mexico. The overall number of indigenous speakers dropped from 6,, to 6,, between and , but increased to 6,, in At the same time, the percentage of indigenous speakers dropped from 7.
Most Spoken Languages. The most commonly spoken languages in Mexico at the time of the census were:. These languages are found in considerable numbers in many Mexican states far from their traditional homelands, in large part because of migration to the northern states and urban areas, usually in search of gainful employment. The following table illustrates the number of speakers for the primary indigenous languages of Mexico in the , , and censuses. In addition, the last column shows the percentage of indigenous speakers for each language out of the total number of indigenous speakers in the country in Indigenous Language.
Zapotec Languages. Chinantec Languages. Mexican Republic. Veracruz lands in tenth place, with 9.
With the exception of the Chiapas dialects, many of the most populous indigenous languages have declined in percentage, possibly due to immigration to the United States and other countries and also do to the increase of the non-indigenous speaking population. Another factor in the decline is that many indigenous migrants who move from Oaxaca, Puebla, Guerrero, or Campeche to large urban areas in Mexico City or the North may have children who, in the absence of a nurturing mother culture, may tend to assimilate and perhaps stop speaking their mother tongue as they socialize and work with their non-indigenous friends, associates, and neighbors.
The number and percentage of indigenous speakers in each of the Mexican states is illustrated in the table below, along with information on the two most commonly spoken languages of each state. The table is sorted by percent the third column :. Most Commonly Spoken Language. Second Most Commonly Spoken Language. Baja California Sur. Baja California. Indigenous Speakers 3 Years and Over. In previous censuses, information on the indigenous speaking population five years of age and older was obtained from the Mexican people.
However, in the census, this approach was changed and the Government also began to collect data on people 3 years and older because from the age of 3, children are able to communicate verbally. With this new approach, it was determined that there were 6,, people 3 years of age or more who spoke an indigenous language , children 3 and 4 four years of age fell into this category. The population of children aged 0 to 2 years in homes where the head of household or a spouse spoke an indigenous language was The states with the highest percentages of population aged 3 and over speaking an indigenous language were:.
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It is worth noting that the percentage of this population in the Federal District was 1. Mexicans Considered Indigenous. The census also included a question that asked people if they considered themselves indigenous, whether or not an indigenous language was spoken. The results of this question indicated that The states with the greatest percentage of persons who considered themselves indigenous were Yucatan The following table illustrates both census categories for each state side-by-side for comparison:.
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Percentage of Persons 3 years of age and older who speak an indigenous language. Percentage of Persons 3 years of age and older who are considered indigenous. Between the and censuses, the number of Mexicans who spoke indigenous languages but did not speak Spanish dropped from In the census, the rate of monolingualism among indigenous speakers showed marked differences according to age. Of all children aged 5 to 9 years, The following table reveals the rate of monolingualism in both the and census for the most commonly spoken Mexican languages:.
Principle Languages. Highest Rates of Monolingualism. The Mexican indigenous language with the highest rate of monoligualism is the Amuzgo tongue. Amuzgo is an Oto-Manguean language spoken in certain sections of both Guerrero and Oaxaca by a little more than 50, people. It is only the twentieth most spoken language group in the Mexican Republic. But the rate of monolingualism for this language dropped from The second and third Mexican languages with the highest rate of monolingualism are sister-languages, Tzeltal Both languages saw significant increases in their overall populations between the and census, but declines in the rate of monolingualism.
The fourth language with the highest rate of monolingualism is Tlapaneco Tlapaneco is spoken in Guererro. Remarkably, the Tlapaneco were one of the few indigenous groups in Southern Mexico that were not conquered by the Aztecs and they have managed to retain many elements of their original culture.
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The language with the fifth highest rate of monolingualism is the Cora language The movement of indigenous peoples from their places of origin to other parts of Mexico will play some role in the continued decline of some languages. On the other hand, the sense of pride and cultural identity among some indigenous groups will ensure the survival of many of the languages well into the future. With a sample size of over 6 million homes, this survey provides information on the national, state and municipio level, as of March 15th, Considered Indigenous Classification.
Survey respondents had four possible responses:. Based on the responses to this question, eight Mexican states in had populations that considered one-third or more of their people to be of indigenous descent , as noted below:. Quintana Roo. On the other hand, the state with the lowest percentage of persons considered indigenous was Tamaulipas 6.
Across all states, the survey reported that A table at the end of this article illustrates the survey results for all the Mexican states and the Distrito Federal DF.
The Indigenous-Speaking Population. The census count told a different story with regards to the population of persons 3 years of age and older who spoke Indigenous languages. While Another question in the survey asked each participant if they spoke an indigenous dialect or language. Only persons 3 years of age and older were considered for this category. Not a single state had a population of indigenous speakers that exceeded one-third of its total population. Only Oaxaca — with Afromexican Population.
Once again, each respondent had four possible answers.